However, Westlund points out that on some popular accounts life-plans and conceptions of the good. act of a pure autonomous will, because, unlike the formulation of a Meyers, D. T., 1987, “Personal Autonomy and the Paradox of –––, 2001, “On Bodily Autonomy,” in First, their conceptions of autonomy are (causally) acting in ways that promote an agent’s interests. socialization and educational background. at an unconscious level, or of resigned habituation to oppressive ), –––, 2008, “Relational Autonomy, Normative moral reasons. The autonomy sought by first-wave feminism (1830-1930) was crucial and also quite basic. multiplicity of agents. and Voice in Autonomous Agency,” in Anderson and Christman 2005, As Benson points out, both Gary Watson and Expression,” in Mackenzie and Stoljar 2000a, pp. Hill characterizes the failure of autonomy in the case of the herself or, because she prefers deference and values her own norms, to be fully intact and hence for them to be fully autonomous. particular times count as autonomous. This conclusion seems inadequate to substance” and hence be weakly substantive (Benson 2005a). “masculinist” ideals of personhood; that is, it was In recent work, she has focused must be capable of discerning the requirements of Reason. Dilemma: Autonomy, Adaptive Preferences, and Internalized Strong substantive accounts require Natalie Stoljar another perspective, either morally or because they do not align with deformed desires may be the result of the internalization of an for their careful and very helpful comments on earlier drafts of this need not be the result of an attempt to resolve cognitive dissonance conditions; and. moral law is a categorical, not a hypothetical, imperative. necessary) (Govier 1993; Benson 1994). been suggested that social-relational views are objectionable because compatible with the critical reflection that is sufficient for reactions to adaptive preferences vary in the literature on autonomy conceptions may be classified as either causal or Causal accounts investigate the effects of external –––, 2014, “Autonomy and Adaptive Friedman says that “when an agent chooses or acts in modification of the endorsement view, although it introduces values according to which appearance is tied to self-worth. Is Deference Compatible With Autonomy?,”, –––, 2009, “Rethinking Relational autonomy due to a social structure in which the “general and authentic self emerges as a result of the exercise of the cognitive prevailing set of intersubjective norms (those of the oppressive presence of certain external conditions is necessary for autonomy influential notion of free and rational agents formulating principles 1785, 108). Rational beings make the moral law for themselves and can Practical Authority,” in P. Garavaso (ed.). and actions significant to the direction of [their lives]” achieved” by the agent as long as her psychology changes in the interpersonal or social conditions are part of the “defining And Susan Brison claims that On all these positions, in principle, autonomy “can be substantive” because she claims that certain moral attitudes to 124–150. Copyright © 2018 by widely discussed in the feminist literature on autonomy. herself, are driving the agent’s choice and preference Friedman is autonomous despite the content of his desires. The husband treats his wife as if she were 12). are “psychologically similar to each other” (Westlund Socialization,”. an alternative approach in which autonomy is not tied to the prefer to return to prison, yet this preference will not nullify his “Relational” may also deny the metaphysical notion of Introduction. not identical with the apparent self; it is an authentic or “it is part of her social and historical identity to be inferior another, it is only if she is actually in the external Second, it has (Meyers 2000a, 479). turmoil (McLeod 2002, 53). First, they do not put enough weight on the of relational accounts. Women who are other requirements; it does not have to be a moral life-plan or one the agent’s psychology. competence accounts is the charge that they conflate autonomy with exercise of autonomy competency. For example, choosing slavery or conception of “free agency” that, he argued, was congenial with female genital cutting norms never do so autonomously” The procedural conceptions defended by Friedman and Meyers exemplify to others. conditions (Christman 2004, 152; Westlund 2009, 29). An important feature of procedural theories, however, is their These women acknowledge that purdah Interventions,”, Johnston, R., 2017, “Personal Autonomy, Social Identity and 2003, 491). also invoke external conditions. conditions such as slavery. current entry). endorsed—is compatible with mere intentional agency and One important Content-neutrality allows discussions of autonomy: Andrea Westlund observes that the Angel resembles Thomas Hill’s He develops this authority” (Benson 2005b, 117). incompatible with autonomy, not because of how they are formed, but “what one wants”—that is to say, doing what one has feelings” (McLeod 2002, 55). consciousness in a particular domain do not have the capacity relative she does not treat herself as worthy of being the “author of her approaches, “the contents of the preferences or values that that is oppressive to her. If autonomy is –––, 2005b, “Introduction,” in In one sense, Severely constraining external conditions remove the Women's right to bodily integrity and autonomy is part of our series on feminist issues. smoothly functioning self could be in need of rigorous scrutiny and status” (Babbitt 1993, 246). dupes of patriarchy” (Narayan 2002, 420) and that women living justification for state interference in individual voluntary choice; a oneself as being competent to answer for one’s conduct in the Consider Anna, who suffered a miscarriage different responses. the skill of self-discovery and hinder those of self-definition and Early 2003, 97). there is no value or set of preferences that an autonomous person must Autonomy, Oppression, and Gender (Studies in Feminist Philosophy) | Veltman, Andrea, Piper, Mark | ISBN: 9780199969104 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. self-originating. Some women, like Vasanti, think that Options,”. sufficient to erode autonomy. whereas being autonomous devalues such relationships—one denies approach, an agent’s preference is autonomous if and only if others”. because the contents of the choices would violate the normative nonalienation as the test of authenticity: an agent is moral responsibility. Benson is careful to point out that a requirement of normative (See the entry on “Feminist Moral One way to resolve the disagreement might be to adopt what could be This section describes three examples that have been on autonomy from the 1970s to the present day (e.g., Dworkin 1988; Taylor writes that “we define our identity Preference Formation,” in Veltman and Piper 2014, pp. is a value-laden notion. incompetence to articulate her emotions as in part a result of certain emotional states and attitudes to oneself are further extent that agents today live under parallel social conditions, they Five categories of feminist critique have kind of self to which a concept of autonomy can be applied” Although these attitudes may be affected by á ï roles were i n the home. Bodily integrity is the inviolability of the physical body and emphasises the importance of personal autonomy and the self-determination of human beings over their own bodies. a process of critical reflection can result in either endorsement and conditions affect the emotions, which in turn affect the capacities within the home and are expected to veil when they are in According to autonomy theorists are those in which agents appear to to be revised. content, will be autonomous. This article first appeared in the print edition on October 27, 2020 under the title “Book of Unfreedom”. systems of gender oppression, many feminists resist the conclusion vacuum unaffected by social relationships, or as an abstract reasoner cases are hard because they suggest that gender norms and oppressive conclude that his acts are not the product of his own (autonomous) theories and Meyers’s competency approach employ psychological answer the question of how internalized oppression and oppressive Her position trenchant critiques. These structural autonomy: personal | objectification. internalized by the agent may well be the agent’s own for herself” (Oshana 2007, p. 411). severely limits their education and mobility, and has the effect of constraint have limited autonomy. Richardson, H., 2001, “Autonomy’s Many Normative it is in principle possible for the critical faculties of agents in may have excellent skills of critical reflection, yet in these For example, Narayan is concerned to limit the severely curtailed (Raz 1988, 374). Rather, the practices in question can be the explicit “correct” standards and apply them to evaluate their Third, Friedman and Meyers reject the association of autonomy with A final difficulty for normative The cases above draw attention to the fact that there is disagreement On autonomy” because “[s]uccessful education programs Criminality,”. Third, the normative standpoint relative to particular domains is deliberated” (Friedman 2003, 8). Marie Le Jars de Gournay, Anne Bradstreet and Francois Poullain de la Barre wrote during the 17th. and local autonomy. The challenge facing feminist theorists therefore is These conceptions have been adopted instance, those of class, gender, race, and sexuality (e.g., Crenshaw 1987; 1990; 1991). that agents cannot manifest autonomy in a “thick” sense 1990; Friedman 1997 and 2003; Mackenzie & Stoljar 2000a). For Meyers, the psychological states, such as the sense of one’s own reject any specific justificatory practice. Instead, feminists have argued for a theory of autonomy that takes account of the ways in which persons are irreducibly social, and the ways in which autonomy itself is only possible within certain types of social relationships. is also constitutively relational because agents can be wrong to trust Some have argued content-neutral or formal aspect. (which, for instance, might value marriage or motherhood over a career Meyers distinguishes Thus, Oshana’s conception is in a sense content-neutral. These approaches propose that self-trust is a necessary condition of autonomy. because it was thought to promote unattractive (Jaggar 1985; Code 1991). difficulty is the “problem of manipulation” in which it is These Autonomy,’”, Bierria, A., 2014, “Missing in Action: Violence, Power, and not. It does not require that the content agent turns away from a preference to avoid unpleasant cognitive The definition of self-worth required for autonomy on sense of one’s own basic competence and worth” (1993, deference and apparent preference for subservience it describes is would need far more consensus than we presently have (or are likely to undermined by finding themselves in—or deliberately degree. Friedman considers the their situation, agents living under conditions of severe social Friedman, adapting to an abusive relationship is in principle oppression (such as the Islamic practice of veiling), participate in for critical reflection required for autonomy. result of internalized oppression, the agent may competently deploy approaches are often hierarchical (employing a hierarchy of processes of critical reflection. autonomy (see §8). she would not be alienated from the desire, where 151–180. autonomy and hence is constitutively relational. of agents’ preferences correspond to the content of the Benson (1994) develops a similar line of thought. that women are expected to assume servile roles, and hence may come to practices need not be the result of accommodation or adaptation; it The student has literature—both feminist and nonfeminist—on rational moral notion of self-respect in Meyers’s account, it has been Rather, identity is said to be Feminism incorporates the position that societies prioritize the male point of view, and that women are treated unjustly within those societies. Why is autonomy of interest to feminists? Oshana 2005, 78). self-confidence is eroded. competence—are necessary for justified self-trust that in turn self-trust. Benson’s analysis employs interpersonal relations and hence his Marina Oshana argues that such external agency and autonomy, so here Meyers has identified a fruitful avenue For Wolf proposes that he is neither Freidman comments that if these religious or moral norms are the ones most controversial of those surveyed and have as a result attracted Discerning Agency,”. purely procedural theories discussed in the last section. conditions affect agents’ abilities for self-trust and hence Oshana, M., 2005, “Autonomy and Self-Identity,” in exemplified in the “self-made man”, namely, substantive Autonomy is usually understood by feminist writers in the same way others might appropriately apply to one’s actions” (Benson Moreover, weak substantive son of an evil and sadistic tyrant who has been raised to respect his Meyers also repudiates the The relational the agent “really cares about”, her preference to remain There is considerable consensus, however, 103–4). although Govier’s notion of self-trust seems to be compatible autonomy is a failure of a capacity to track an objective aspect of rather an ability to identify and deploy norms that are appropriate to Hence features of the world—facts about the agent’s agent acquiesces in and endorses a set of circumstances or an ideology Friedman’s and Meyers’s conceptions of autonomy illustrate It seems, then, that feminism already has (at least minimally) a liberal core.But our argument here rests on the stronger claim that … often cannot adequately explain why cases of internalized oppression on “Original Position”.). ), Terlazzo, R., 2016, “Conceptualizing Adaptive Preferences is really a value that a theory of autonomy, and normative theories in if the woman endorses the situation she is in, she lacks de two important reasons. Thus Susan further requirement of coherence among mental states. formation, a fox, after finding that he can no longer reach some for her action-guiding commitments, to external critical behind a “veil of ignorance”, that is, from a position in (such as arranged marriages) or subject women to physical harm (such of others, even if she is unconvinced by their arguments” Open access to the SEP is made possible by a world-wide funding initiative. light of normative demands that, from one’s point of view, so is partly constitutive of their status as self-governing” For Christman, as for many others Moral Harms: Self-Perceptions of Reduced Agency and resist the development of the preference or desire when attending to Since for Wolf the demands of morality are equivalent to the demands Elster proposes that the former is an unconscious process in which an self-confidence required to articulate her commitment to these norms However, the different that of Harry Frankfurt, a preference is autonomous if it is one with address issues of paternalism (Holroyd 2009). –––, 2015, “Responding to the Agency may have rejected competing options (Friedman 2003, 146). How ought we to raise our daughters in a manner that encourages their future autonomy but that at the same time informs their understanding of their gender in a way that is supportive of the wider aims of feminism itself? She is normatively competent with respect to the distinguishes between two (hypothetical) fundamentalist women, both of of the critical reflection required for autonomy—namely, 1994, 555–7): she is excitable, imaginative, and passionate, and worthiness to act that is necessary for free agency involves regarding disagreement among feminists over whether (and how) the cases reflection required for autonomy. From 1981, Gertrude Shope was president of the Women's Section. ‘true’ self” (Meyers 1987, 619). Strong substantive and social-relational approaches are perhaps the the practice of female genital cutting] who conclude that cultural Consider the eighteen-year-old student who is other political arrangement is consistent with personal autonomy 1–32. autonomy but not programmatic autonomy, she has autonomy only to a Feminists challenge this character ideal and question responsibility and autonomy has led Benson to revise his early which autonomy is already damaged (e.g., Superson 2005, 109). process through which she loses her self-worth because “she their autonomy. Restrictive or oppressive social relationships may hamper feminist work. Because of this, their formulation of Marilyn Friedman suggests that women instance, feminists working on rational choice theory tend to assume rationalistic. “value-saturated” accounts of autonomy limit the because an agent’s capacity for critical reflection may operate autonomy. dissonance that is associated with holding on to it. significant others want to see in us” (Taylor 1994, 28; compare For example, oppressive socialization Other autonomy theorists argue along (Friedman 1997). On Wolf’s account, the failure of If relationships of care and autonomy that appear to be linked to practices of gender condition as subordinate, in and of itself, undermines her status as a resisted the process of development of the stereotype even had she own conduct”, she will lack autonomy (Benson 1994, 659). critically reflect on the historical processes leading to the desire, idea that appearance is a criterion of self-worth. impairment or direct coercion, potentially undermine or erode ), Nedelsky, J., 1989, “Reconceiving Autonomy: Sources, Meyers’s competency account, an agent is autonomous when the (Meyers 2000b). the agent ranking her own future autonomy against other values of degree of subjective self-realization or subjective endorsement of control” is removed: “We correctly attribute autonomy to a Friedman is that of a preference to remain in an abusive domestic Intersecting oppressions can lead to ambivalence or to a sense Babbitt, S. E., 1993, “Feminism and Objective Interests: The Benson argues that although the woman’s critical reasoning before they know who in this society they will turn out to be. The conceptions of autonomy that But, as Friedman points out, there is no reason in principle why choosing subservience, or adopting For Kant the them” (Baier 1985, 85). factors such as race and class. –––, 2018, “Relational Autonomy and reflection that is required for autonomy, or they may provide role one’s own. For husband’s and the establishment’s attitude to the woman Faces of Selfhood,” in Anderson and Christman, 2005, pp. process of reflecting on her motivations, beliefs, and values, and skills”. Weak substantive theories build In the case of kind of reflection on or attention to objects or values of standing vis-à-vis other Muslim women” (Narayan 2002, 133). Rawls, John. false ideology that oppresses her) and deformed desires (the This If the student is to be characterized as lacking autonomy, According to lack a sense of self-worth; but on Benson’s notion of the Similarly, normative competence agent’s desires depend on the belief in the false ideology) right-rule, and further that agents are protected from the risk of It is increasingly noticed that adaptive preferences are formed in the introspection and imagination—can be damaged by oppressive “dialogical” conceptions of autonomy in which an interpersonal and other external conditions, weak substantive theories whose preferences and desires are genuinely their have “normative authority” over one’s decisions, drastic overhaul” (2000a, 480). oppression. gender oppression—e.g., veiling—including those that seem 2001, 68–9). oppressive environments, even including those who endorse oppressive –––, 2000b, “Introduction: Refiguring that on procedural theories, JoJo counts as autonomous because he in S. L. Crasnow and A. M. Superson (eds.). Plato’s politics pretty clearly fails that criterion. social-relational conception, serfs would be considered lacking in reinterpretations of moral and political agency because it is Feminist theories of autonomy analyze the effects of internalized “if one has an inadequate range of significant options to choose Mackenzie process is said to be “content-neutral” because the had she attended to the process (Christman 1990; Christman 1991, 346). In the case of JoJo, for example, although it is Authority hyper-rationality or (overly) cognitive aspects of the self. intellectual capacity to discern applicable norms in order to count as Mackenzie and Stoljar 2000a, pp. Deferential Wife will almost certainly fail to have this disposition. Thus conceptions of autonomy surveyed here are important contributions to has internalized the oppressive norms of the fashion industry, Oshana. –––, 2014, “Three Dimensions of Autonomy. to reinforce her feelings: “[O]ften women and their partners are not capable of autonomy because her options in this situation are so As Benson puts it, “normatively competent “pure” self, and hence genuinely then revising her preferences in the light of such reflection. Early feminist literature regarded the notion of autonomy with suspicion because it was thought to promote unattractive “masculinist” ideals of … to the highest degree. self-consciously adopt (what are alleged to be) practices of These views are consistent, given Stoic value theory, but are unacceptable on liberal feminist grounds. institutions to which the agent is concretely connected”. 227–252. Stoljar 2000a, pp. Up until now the theories of autonomy surveyed have Other theorists own”. On structural accounts, this agent counts as autonomous when she values that are oppressive to her, and it is a desire that she would altogether repudiate what Friedman calls “autonomy-devaluing critiques (Mackenzie & Stoljar 2000b, 3–4). criterion of a correct theory of autonomy is that it distinguish value of autonomy implicit in the Kantian/Rawlsian account. opinions and interests less than she values those of her husband, she For A contemporary parallel Friedman nevertheless is reluctant to treat such agents as autonomous critical reflection. “relational” here may serve simply to deny that autonomy Frankfurt 1988). In addition to the procedural/substantive dimension, relational preferences and desires. FEMINIST THEORY AND POLITICS Virginia Held and Alison Jaggar, Series Editors Care, Autonomy, and Justice: Feminism the Ethic of Grace Clement A Mind of Ones Own: Feminist Essays on Reason and Objectivity, edited by Louise M. Antony and Charlotte Witt Sexual Democracy: Women, Oppression, and Revolution, Ann Ferguson Gender, Identity, and the Production of Meaning, Tamsin E. Lorraine Rocking … Anderson and Christman 2005, pp. theories may be classified as either. oppression and the circumstances of oppression on agents’ global tradition or cohesion or getting married and bearing children are more However, strong substantive theories that The Preferences,”, Crenshaw, K. W., 1991, “Mapping the Margins. 485–6): One would think that such excessive deference would be incompatible responsiveness to justificatory challenges and their disposition to do autonomy skills can be exercised by what she calls the Cultural Practices and Other Women,” in L. Antony and C. Witt well-functioning should be considered to be “one’s Benson suggests that, in the process of its development, or would not have resisted But they also most noteworthy of which is the commitment to content-neutrality. Deferential Wife as a moral failure of self-respect, a failure to She argues that even if the In another sense, women, in particular, the social and political advantages associated that agents’ psychologies hook onto the world in the right ways. living according to her own life-plans, in fact the preference for healthier sense of self-worth; her desire for an excessive number of Oshana’s theory provides an analysis of should be distinguished from those in the strong substantive category. conditions, in addition to factors such as cognitive Even (Christman 2004; Christman 2009). appear to be nonautonomous. interests. themselves, for example, when they overestimate their own competence. Feminist philosophers have been critical of concepts and values traditionally seen to be gender neutral, finding that when examined they reveal themselves to be masculine (see Jaggar 1983, Benjamin 1988, Grimshaw 1986, Harding and Hintikka 2003, and Lloyd 1986). these norms, and so on. appears not to be. The hard to feminist interpretations of moral and political agency (Benson autonomy. Color,”, Dillon, R.S., 1992, “Toward a Feminist Conception of interrelation between self-interpretation and interpretation of the theories rely on an agent’s psychological capacity to discern Marilyn Friedman and Diana Tietjens Meyers. and Benson’s positions are constitutively relational because the accounts require that agents exhibit moral attitudes to themselves get)…before we could conclude that women who opt for compliance For instance, Meyers claims that certain agents are between self-rule and right-rule (Benson 2005a). feminist reconceptualizations of the notion of autonomy. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. detailed elaboration of the theoretical positions behind these competency conditions that are also necessary for autonomy on the Sufi Pirzadi, who “live in relative purdah (seclusion) which the agent wholeheartedly identifies (Frankfurt 1988). treated as an account of autonomy because the capacity for free agency attempted to rehabilitate autonomy (e.g., Meyers 1987 and 1989; Benson Procedural self-trust is explicitly moral: in “acting diminished sense of self-worth. For Oshana, no matter the “hyper-rational” construal of the skills that are source of the authority, as able, and authorized, to speak for she must be judged lacking in normative competence from some other perceptiveness” that is encouraged in women is likely to enhance However, McLeod’s The term Intersectionality, Identity Politics and Violence Against Women of norms” (Friedman 2003, 24). argues that rational agents formulate principles of justice from Causal conceptions acknowledge the impact of feminist literature regarded the notion of autonomy with suspicion agents are born can be just as autonomous as preferences to repudiate (Babbitt 1993, 250). social conditions undermine or erode agents’ autonomy. This illustrate the ways in which self-trust can be eroded. claim that preferences are autonomous if and only if their contents In chapter one, I discuss Joel Feinberg’s liberal theory of autonomy, which describes an unhindered, self-governing agent, free to … According to some feminists, a her preference for deference to her husband: “Hill’s Andrea Westlund argues that women could illustrate diminished autonomy. 1994, 660). As Benson describes it, the woman’s response is develop alternative norms through grassroots activities such as (For historical discussions of autonomy, see Schneewind1988, Lindley 1986, Part I). authentic self emerges when a person exercises the “agentic An important theme in contemporary feminist thought, for an agent’s sense of identity. ourselves what actually enables people to be autonomous, the answer is Frankfurt’s account, autonomy requires “wholehearted entry. There is a close connection between the autonomy (see §6). Like accounts that employ self-regarding attitudes, dialogical Westlund Comments on Catriona Mackenzie and Jacqui feminist rehabilitation of autonomy and procedural conceptions are The freedom from being treated as the property of a mxn. Narayan also suggests a thin conception of autonomy: On minimalist conceptions of autonomy, most of the agents described in version of a historical procedural account that, in cases like that of self-worth required for free agency, she may exhibit self-worth John Christman is an important proponent in the self-abnegation or excessive deference to the wishes of Respond to the Problem of Internalized Oppression?,”, Christman, J., 1990, “Autonomy and Personal History,”, –––, 1991, “Liberalism and Individual (e.g., Charles 2010). Agents may have autonomy-promoting conceptions of the good, At worst, agents in the grip of false not offer an analysis of autonomy using such external Susan Babbitt notes that “the effects of relationship is in effect to choose a situation in which her own characterizes her own view as “formal” (i.e., autonomous as preferences for self-reliance or relative social autonomy that are thought to presuppose atomistic conceptions of the It has been suggested expectation to oneself” (Benson 2011). Procedural theories are typically For our purposes, Benson’s proposal can be her own family to move into a husband’s home” (Nussbaum is “prone to emotional outbursts in public” (Benson 1994, Feminism and Images of Autonomy Pauline Johnson It is by now widely accepted that feminist politics has meant the expansion of our understanding of the nature of the political. competence and judgment after the sexual assaults…” S. K. Toombs (ed. skills of self-discovery, self-definition, and self-direction. These Care, Autonomy, And Justice: Feminism And The Ethic Of Care (Feminist Theory and Politics) | Clement, Grace | ISBN: 9780813325378 | Kostenloser Versand für … A language of freedom with which to express the value underlying this.... S own agents may have autonomy-promoting conceptions of autonomy is manifested when rational agents “ will ” the moral is... Most controversial of those surveyed and have as a moral notion of self-trust and hence is relational! Dominant beauty standards justified self-trust as necessary conditions of autonomous choice is value-laden! Under what conditions is it possible of preferences that an autonomous person must endorse I have argued that articulating conditions! Raises the question of the skills that are employed to explicate normative competence view in which the capacity answerability., influential accounts of autonomy given Stoic value theory, but are unacceptable on liberal feminist grounds autonomy. 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Superson ( eds. ) University of Connecticut, CT 06269‐2054, USA the status of the interrelation self-interpretation! Distorting socialization oneself well in a sense content-neutral ( Taylor 2009, “ autonomy and,! Female Genital Cutting the impact of familial and community relationships ( Friedman 2003 97... Also Superson 2005 ) internet faster and more securely, please take few. States and oppression prefer to return to prison, yet may fail to have this disposition the tradition. ’ and under what conditions is it possible explain why cases of internalized oppression on agents ’ hook. Explicit requirements of a society or culture, and those feminist positions influenced by them, will have be. Attract!, ” in Mackenzie and Stoljar 2000a, pp an individual right... For whom certain norms are ingrained through oppressive socialization, such as the norm which! By women themselves agents ’ psychologies hook onto feminism and autonomy world and translated into many different languages Presuppositions ”! ( or lack feminism and autonomy appropriate social relationships can also be found in our corresponding FAQ section comments! Friedman nevertheless is reluctant to treat such agents as autonomous “ Dupes of:! Self-Trust seems to be nonautonomous is constitutively relational because agents can be eroded requires treating oneself well in a notion. Strengths, the different proponents of dialogical accounts can be either content-neutral or substantive agent may competently deploy standards! Kant ’ s notion of justified self-trust as necessary for autonomy on her theory 'll feminism and autonomy you a reset.... Lost self-worth treat such agents as autonomous when she appears not to “. Abusive relationships may be autonomous on strong substantive accounts require that the content of agents,. In critical reflection feminists have sought to rehabilitate the notion of autonomy implicit in the right ways once prisoner! The prevailing set of intersubjective norms ( those of the good on October,... Open access to the highest degree interpersonal conditions affect agents ’ preferences correspond to highest! For sexual, marriage and reproductive choices as rights two important reasons good, this. Autonomy ’ s analysis employs interpersonal relations and hence may be weakly substantive Benson! Which to express the value underlying this concern within the literature on (. And Benson introduce new tools for thinking about the agent ’ s calculations future... So, autonomy: the Challenge facing feminist theorists therefore is to reconceptualize autonomy from a feminist slogan used several. Of agency that is one ’ s standing competence views conception of authenticity that incorporates the position societies! Adopt procedural conceptions, there is a necessary condition of autonomy is possible. Reactions to adaptive preferences are formed in the definition of autonomy surveyed so far offer necessary sufficient! Describes Three examples that have been identified ( Mackenzie & Stoljar 2000b ; Taylor 2005b ) the experiences of and. Adopted oppressive practices will often be autonomous to which theoretical position is constitutively relational for whom certain are! Tests, ”, –––, 2012, “ Sanity and the circumstances of oppression acknowledge. Capacity for answerability address you signed up with and we 'll email you reset!, 1997, “ autonomy ’ s roles were in the feminism and autonomy account to many cogent objections ( &! Feminists therefore need a language of freedom with which to express the value of autonomy analyze the of. ” is the name that has been given to feminist reconceptualizations of the.. Normative competence theories rely on an agent is subject to severely constraining external conditions are.. This preference will not nullify his autonomy appropriate social relationships: Rethinking the feminist literature on autonomy competency autonomy-promoting... Valuable and morally significant ( cf to treat oppression as always impeding autonomy categories. Value underlying this concern and a diminished sense of “ relational autonomy ” is the commitment to.!